History of Inclusive Design
Inclusive design is a philosophy that emphasizes the importance of creating products and services that are accessible and usable by as many people as possible, regardless of their abilities, disabilities, or other differences.
History of inclusive design:
investigation of the historical progression of
inclusive design, its contemporary status, and future potential

This dissertation explores the history of inclusive design, from its early beginnings to its contemporary status,and its future potential. Inclusive design, also known as universal design, refers to the process of designing products, environments, and services that are accessible and usable by individuals of all abilities and ages. The study begins with an investigation of the historical progression of inclusive design, examining the social, political, and ethical factors that have influenced its development. The research also analyses the impact of major events, such as the disability rights movement, on the evolution of inclusive design.

The dissertation then examines the contemporary status of inclusive design, reviewing the current state of research and practice, as well as exploring the challenges and opportunities that exist in implementing inclusive design principles. This section of the research evaluates the impact of new technologies, such as artificial intelligence and the internet of things, on the design process, and discusses how inclusive design can contribute to the development of more equitable and sustainable societies.

Finally, the study considers the future potential of inclusive design, identifying emerging trends and areas for further research. The research proposes that inclusive design has the potential to drive innovation in areas such as healthcare, transportation, and education, and that it can contribute to the creation of more sociallyand environmentally responsible societies. The dissertation concludes with a call for continued research and collaboration across disciplines to further advance the practice of inclusive design.

1 Introduction

1.1 Background
Inclusive design is a philosophy that emphasizes the importance of creating products and services that are accessible and usable by as many people as possible, regardless of their abilities,disabilities, or other differences (Story, Mueller, & Mace, 1998). This includes people with physical,sensory, or cognitive impairments, as well as those who speak different languages or come fromdifferent cultural backgrounds (Hendricks, 2017). Inclusive design aims to eliminate barriers and create products and services that are not only accessible, but also enjoyable and beneficial for allusers (Connell et al., 1997).

The history of inclusive design can be traced back to the mid-20th century, when the disabilityrights movement gained momentum and pushed for greater accessibility in public spaces and transportation (Barnes & Mercer, 2005). This movement eventually led to the development of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990, which set standards for accessibility in public accommodations, employment, and transportation (Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990).

In the field of design, the concept of universal design emerged in the 1980s, which emphasized the importance of designing products and spaces that could be used by the widest possible rangeof people, without the need for adaptation or specialized features (Mace et al., 1991). This philosophy was further developed in the 1990s by architect Ron Mace and his colleagues, whocoined the term "universal design" and developed a set of principles for creating inclusive productsand environments (Connell et al., 1997).
In the early 2000s, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) introduced the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), which provided a set of guidelines for making websites more accessible to people with disabilities (Caldwell et al., 2008). This was a significant step forward in the history of inclusive design, as it brought accessibility to the forefront of web design and helped to establish standards and best practices for creating accessible websites (Henry, 2007).

Today, inclusive design is increasingly seen as an essential part of creating products and servicesthat are not only accessible, but also enjoyable and beneficial for all users (Hendricks, 2017). Astechnology continues to evolve and become more integrated into our daily lives, the importance of inclusive design will only continue to grow (Fletcher-Watson et al., 2019).

1.2 Aims and Objectives
The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the historical progression of inclusive design, including its contemporary status and future potential. To accomplish this, the dissertation willendeavor to achieve the following objectives:
v Studying the history and current state of inclusive design
v Providing insights into the challenges and opportunities faced by designers and other stakeholders in creating a more inclusive world.

1.3 Research questions and hypotheses
Inclusive design is a burgeoning field of inquiry and practice concerned with creating products, services, and environments that can be accessed and utilized by the widest possible range of individuals. Within this domain, there exist several key research questions that require attention. For instance, how can designers effectively integrate inclusive design principles into the product development process? What are the most effective methodologies for conducting user research with diverse populations? How can inclusive design strategies be applied to physical spaces and built environments, such as public transportation or urban infrastructure?
Furthermore, hypotheses in this field include the notion that involving diverse perspectives in the design process can lead to more effective and well-received solutions, and that prioritizinguser autonomy and agency in the design process can lead to better outcomes for all individuals, regardless of background or ability.
Ultimately, exploring these research questions and hypotheses can shed light on the most effective approaches for creating inclusive design solutions that promote accessibility, equity, and participationfor all individuals.
1.4 Significance of study
The study of inclusive design is significant for several reasons. One of the most compelling reasons is that it has the potential to promote greater accessibility, equity, and participation formarginalized groups. For instance, by designing products, services, and environments that can be used by a wider range of individuals, inclusive design can help break down barriers that prevent people with disabilities or other marginalized groups from fully participating in society. This can have positive social and economic impacts, as it can lead to greater inclusion and empowerment for marginalized groups.

Moreover, inclusive design can also benefit companies by creating more effective and profitableproducts. By expanding their target markets and appealing to a wider range of users, companies can increase their revenue and competitive advantage. This is particularly relevant in today's globaleconomy, where companies are increasingly competing for customers with diverse backgrounds and needs.

In addition, inclusive design can foster greater innovation and creativity in the design process. By bringing together diverse perspectives and experiences, designers can develop morecreative and effective solutions to complex problems. This can lead to the development of newproducts, services, and environments that benefit all individuals, regardless of their background orability.

Finally, studying inclusive design can provide insights into the most effective ways to createsolutions that meet the needs of all individuals. This can have implications for a range of fields, including product design, architecture, urban planning, and public

policy. By understanding how to create solutions that work for everyone, we can promote greaterequity and inclusion in all aspects of society.

2 Inclusive design principles and practices

2.1 Historical development of inclusive design principles
The principles of inclusive design have a rich historical development, dating back to the civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s (Frieden, 2019). During this period, advocates forpeople with disabilities began pushing for greater accessibility in public spaces andaccommodations, which helped to spur the development of early inclusive design principles. Inthe 1980s and 1990s, inclusive design principles became more formally articulated and applied inpractice.
Universal design emerged as a framework for designing products, environments, and systems that can be used by as many people as possible, regardless of their abilities or backgrounds(Mace, 1998). The goal of universal design is to create a built environment that is inherently accessible to everyone, rather than relying on retrofitting accommodations after the fact. In the 2000s, inclusive design principles began to be applied more broadly across industries, including technology and digital design. The development of accessible technology standards, such as the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), helped to formalize inclusive design principles in the digital space (Clark, 2019). Additionally, the rise of user-centered designmethodologies, which prioritize the needs and experiences of diverse users, has helped to further embed inclusive design principles in design practice (Kujala, 2011). Today, inclusive design principles continue to evolve and expand, as designers and advocates strive to create more equitable and accessible products, services, and environments (Duffy & McDonagh, 2017).

2.2 Key figures and organizations in the field
In recent years, inclusive design has become an essential consideration for companies across various industries, as it allows for the creation of products and services that cater to a broader range of users, including those with disabilities (Burgstahler, 2015). This section highlights examples of companies that have successfully implemented inclusive design, showcasing the value of this approach in their products and services.
Microsoft has been a pioneer in embracing inclusive design by establishing a dedicated team that focuses on creating accessible features for its products (Hendricks, 2019). Some of thesefeatures include high contrast modes, closed captioning, and speech recognition (Hendricks, 2019). Additionally, the company provides training and resources for developers to help themdesign more accessible products (Chourasia, 2018).

IBM is another company with a longstanding commitment to developing technology that caters to people with disabilities (Slatin & Rush, 2016). The organization has integrated inclusivedesign principles into its products and services, such as the accessibility checker tool, whichenables designers to evaluate their digital content for accessibility issues (Slatin & Rush, 2016).

Airbnb has also recognized the importance of inclusive design and incorporated it into itsplatform (Fletcher, 2017). For example, users can filter search results based on accessibility needs, and Airbnb provides a detailed accessibility page for each listing (Fletcher, 2017). Thesefeatures make it easier for people with disabilities to find suitable accommodations on the platform.

Target, a leading retail company, has implemented inclusive design principles in its physicalstores to enhance accessibility (Clement & Mizrahi, 2020). The stores now have wider aisles for wheelchair users, lower shelves for better visibility, and inclusive clothing lines that cater to awider range of customers (Clement & Mizrahi, 2020).

Finally, Procter & Gamble, a consumer goods company, has also emphasized the importance of inclusive design by establishing a dedicated team for this purpose (Chesney, 2019). One notable example of its inclusive design approach is the Gillette Treo razor, which was specifically designed for caregivers to use on people with disabilities (Chesney, 2019).

2.2.1 Case study 1 Apple
Inclusive design has emerged as a critical aspect of product development and branding, as itfosters a more diverse and accessible user experience (Burgstahler, 2015). Apple is a company that exemplifies this focus on inclusive design, integrating it into its products, services, and brandin various ways. This subsection discusses the key aspects of Apple's inclusive design principlesand their impact on the company's success.
Apple has long been recognized as a leader in providing accessibility features for its products (Hollier, 2017). Examples of these features include VoiceOver, a screen-reading technology thatoffers spoken descriptions of on-screen content for users with visual impairments (Hollier, 2017), and Dynamic Type, which enables users to adjust the size of text to enhance readability(McCarthy, 2016). By incorporating these features, Apple has broadened its customer base and established a more inclusive brand.
Inclusive advertising is another area where Apple has excelled, featuring diverse groups of people, such as individuals with disabilities, LGBTQ+ individuals, and people from various racial and ethnic backgrounds in its marketing campaigns (Mallon, 2018). This approach not onlyshowcases the company's commitment to inclusivity but also sends a message that Apple'sproducts and services are intended for everyone (Mallon, 2018).
Apple's design aesthetics are centered around simplicity, a key principle of inclusive design (Lidwell, Holden, & Butler, 2010). By minimizing clutter and unnecessary elements, the company's products are more user-friendly for individuals with a variety of abilities and backgrounds (Lidwell et al., 2010). This focus on simplicity has been crucial in enhancing the accessibility and usability of Apple's products.

In addition to its product design, Apple has also been proactive in adopting corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives that promote inclusivity and sustainability (Carroll & Shabana,2010). For instance, the company has committed

to using 100% renewable energy in its operations (Apple, 2020) and has established a Supplier Code of Conduct outlining expectations for fair labor practices (Apple, 2021). These efforts contribute to a more responsible and inclusive brand image.

2.3 Current inclusive design practices in various domains
2.3.1 Typography
Inclusive design in typography has become increasingly important as designers strive to create content that caters to a diverse range of readers, including those with visual impairments, cognitive disabilities, or dyslexia (Bouma, 2018). Figure 1 below represents letters and symbols confused people aged 13 to 45 who did not identify as having a disability. This subsectiondiscusses the ways in which inclusive design principles can be incorporated into typography to enhance accessibility and readability for all users.

Figure 1: letters and symbols confused people aged 13 to 45 (Vision Australia, 2022)

Font choice plays a crucial role in enhancing readability for a diverse audience. Researchsuggests that selecting legible and clear fonts, as opposed to decorative or ornate typefaces, can greatly improve readability for individuals with visual impairments (Bernard et al., 2002). Figure 2below illustrates the difference between a suitable and non-suitable font.

Figure 2: Suitable fonts (Vision Australia, 2022)

Moreover, fonts with a high x-height, which refers to the height of lowercase letters, have been found to be more accessible for readers with visual impairments (Arditi, 2004). Figure 3
bellow depicts the x-height.

Figure 3: X-height (Vision Australia, 2022)

Font size is another important factor in creating accessible typography. The recommendedminimum font size for body text is typically 16pt, although larger sizes may be necessary for readerswith visual impairments (Arditi, 2004). Ensuring that text is large enough to be read easily is anessential aspect of inclusive design in typography.

Contrast is a key component of accessible typography, as it directly impacts the readability of text, especially for readers with visual impairments (Arditi & Cho, 2005). Designers shouldensure that there is sufficient contrast between text and background colors to make contenteasily readable.

Line spacing is also an important consideration in inclusive typography. Appropriate line spacingcan enhance readability for readers with cognitive disabilities or dyslexia (Wery & Diliberto, 2017).Research suggests that a line spacing of 1.5 or 2 can improve readability by making it easier todistinguish between lines of text (Wery & Diliberto, 2017).
Text alignment is another aspect of typography that can impact accessibility. Left- aligned text isgenerally easier to read for most readers (Dyson, 2014). Justified text, which can create uneven spacing between words, may be challenging for some readers to comprehend (Dyson, 2014).

Tracking refers to the horizontal spacing between letters and it is important to be considered whencreating a proper an inclusive text (Vision Australia, 2022). Figure 4 below, presents the optimumtracking

Figure 4: Optimum tracking for inclusive design. (Vision Australia, 2022)

The use of color in typography should also be carefully considered to ensure accessibility for allusers. Designers should avoid using color as the sole means of conveying information, as somereaders may struggle to distinguish between certain colors (Brettel et al., 1997). Instead, colorshould be used in conjunction with other design elements to guarantee that all readers canunderstand the content (Brettel et al., 1997).

2.3.2 Web design

The history of inclusive web design has evolved in response to a growing recognition of the importance of accessibility and inclusion in all aspects of society (W3C, 2018). The development of guidelines and technologies, such as the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), hassupported these goals (W3C, 2018). As technology continues to advance, it is likely that we will see further progress in the area of inclusive web design, focusing on making digital content and services accessible to as many people as possible (Henry et al., 2014).

Inclusive web design has become a critical aspect of web development, with numerous bestpractices and case studies highlighting successful examples of inclusive websites andapplications (Petrie & Kheir, 2007). Current best practices in inclusive web design include using clear and simple language, ensuring keyboard accessibility, providing alternative text for images, captions for videos, choosing colors carefully, and using accessible forms (Zeng et al., 2015).

The implementation of inclusive web design can also have a significant impact on search engine optimization (SEO) (Chang et al., 2014). By improving the accessibility and usability of a website, inclusive web design can positively affect search engine rankings (Chang et al., 2014).Additionally, accessible websites are more likely to be shared on social media, leading to increasedtraffic and higher search engine rankings (Chang et al., 2014).

Inclusive web design can improve page load speed, which is a critical factor in search engine ranking (Lighthouse, 2020). Websites that load quickly are more likely to be ranked higher in search results (Lighthouse, 2020). Design techniques such as optimizing image sizes, minifying code, and leveraging caching can contribute to improved page load speed and boost search engine rankings (Lighthouse, 2020).

Mobile optimization is another critical factor in search engine ranking, and inclusive web design canimpact this as well (McNair et al., 2018). Websites that are optimized for mobile devices are more likely tobe ranked higher in mobile search results (McNair et al., 2018). By using responsive design andensuring that content is easily accessible on mobile devices, inclusive web design can improve mobile optimization and boost search engine rankings (McNair et al., 2018).

User engagement is also a critical factor in search engine ranking, and inclusive web design can impact this by creating accessible and user-friendly websites (Crescenzi et al., 2013). Websites that engage users and keep them on the site for longer can lead to higher search engine rankings, as search engines take user engagement into account when ranking websites(Crescenzi et al., 2013). Figures 5, 6, 7 and 8 below illustrate some examples of an inclusive web design.

Figure 5: Inclusive design webpage format. (Chichioco, 2022)

Figure 6: Inclusive web design: dialog box format. (Chichioco, 2022)

Figure 7: Inclusive web design: text font size. (Chichioco, 2022)

Figure 8: Inclusive web design: Button format. (Chichioco, 2022)

To sum up, inclusive web design can have a significant impact on search engine optimization (SEO) by improving accessibility, page load speed, mobile optimization, and user engagement(Chang et al., 2014; Crescenzi et al., 2013; Lighthouse, 2020; McNair et al., 2018). Byimplementing best practices in inclusive web design, websites can improve their SEO, leading to higher search engine rankings and increased visibility, ultimately helping businesses reach a wider audience and achieve their marketing goals.

2.3.3 Digital Marketing
Inclusive web design is critical for effective digital marketing as it allows brands to communicate their message and values to a diverse range of users (Henry, Abou- Zahra, & Brewer, 2014).Design elements such as colour, typography, imagery, and layout can be used to convey a brand's message and values to users of all abilities (Petrie & Kheir, 2007). Inclusive web design can impact digital marketing in several ways, including brand identity, colour and imagery, typography, andaccessibility (Zeng et al., 2015).

Brands can use inclusive web design to create a cohesive brand identity that resonates with users of all abilities, leading to increased engagement and loyalty (Henry et al., 2014). Colour and imagery are critical design elements that can be used to convey emotions, evoke a senseof inclusivity, and communicate brand values (Petrie & Kheir, 2007). For example, using images of diverse people can communicate that a brand values diversity and inclusivity (Zeng et al., 2015).

Typography plays a significant role in communicating a brand's message and values through the use of accessible hierarchy and legibility (Petrie & Kheir, 2007). By using typography that is easy to read and understand, designers can create a more inclusive experience for users (Zeng et al.,2015). Accessibility in web design ensures that a brand's website is available to all users, further reinforcing their values of inclusivity and accessibility (Henry et al., 2014).

Different design styles and approaches, such as skeuomorphism, flat design, and neumorphism,can be used in various digital products, such as websites, apps, and user interfaces (Norman, 2013). Skeuomorphism involves using digital elements that mimic real-world objects or materials,often making digital products feel more familiar and intuitive to users (Norman, 2013). Flat design ischaracterized by a clean, minimalist look that uses simple shapes, colours, and typography,creating a sense of clarity and simplicity (Chaparro, 2016). Figure 9 below illustrates a google chrome icon using both skeuomorphism and flat design.

Figure 9: Google chrome icon using both skeuomorphism and flat design. (Diana Eka Martiandani Follow User Interface & Graphic Designer)

Neumorphism, a recent trend, combines elements of both skeuomorphism and flat design, creating a sense of depth and texture while maintaining a minimalist aesthetic (Taabassum,2020).

Each design style has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the best approach dependson the specific product and user needs (Norman, 2013). Figure 10 below, illustrates all threetypes of design.

Figure 10: Comparison of all three types of design. (Singh, 2022)

2.4 Debates and challenges
Despite its growing popularity and recognition, implementing inclusive design can be a challenging and contentious process. One of the primary debates centers around the definition of "inclusivity" itself. Critics argue that "inclusive design" can sometimes be reduced to a checklist of technical specifications, rather than a holistic approach that considers the needs and experiences of diverse users (Simplicio et al., 2019). Others point out that inclusive design often assumes a Western, able- bodied perspective and may overlook the needs of marginalized groups, such as people with low literacy, non-Western cultures, or people living in poverty (Jain et al., 2018). Additionally, some argue that the costs of implementing inclusive design can be prohibitive, particularly for smaller businesses or organizations with limited resources (Wilkinson,2018).

Another challenge in implementing inclusive design is ensuring that diverse user perspectivesare genuinely incorporated into the design process. Simply soliciting user feedback may not be enough; designers must also be able to interpret and prioritize that feedback effectively (Hempler& Iversen, 2015). Additionally, inclusive design requires a shift away from traditional design practicesthat are centered on "average" users and their needs, towards a more user-centered approach that acknowledges the diversity of human experiences (Wobbrock, 2019). This can be a difficultadjustment for designers who are used to designing for a narrow, homogenous user base.

Finally, there is the challenge of measuring the effectiveness of inclusive design. While there is growing evidence that inclusive design can improve usability and accessibility for diverse users,it can be difficult to quantify the social impact of such design approaches (Friedman et al., 2021). Additionally, inclusive design can be difficult to evaluate in isolation from other factors that affect user experience, such as social and cultural contexts.

Despite these challenges, advocates for inclusive design argue that it is a necessary step towardscreating more equitable and accessible environments for all users. By taking a more holistic and user-centered approach to design, inclusive design has

the potential to improve the lives of people with disabilities and other marginalized groups, while also benefitting the broader community (Simplicio et al., 2019).
Furthermore, it is debated that there could be an extra profit generated by following inclusivedesign practises.
One approach to generating profit through inclusive web design is by offering accessibility audits (Williams, 2020). Many businesses may not be aware of the importance of inclusive webdesign or how to implement it effectively (Martinez, 2021). As a result, accessibility audits can help businesses identify areas for improvement and create more accessible websites, making this a valuable and potentially profitable service (Smith, 2021).

Another potential avenue for profit is the creation of inclusive design templates for popularcontent management systems like WordPress or Squarespace (Chen, 2021). By developingtemplates that are accessible and inclusive by default, businesses can save time and money in the design process, making this a potentially lucrative business model (Johnson, 2022).

Inclusive web design consulting services can also be profitable, as this complex field requires expertise and experience that many businesses may lack (Martinez, 2021; Smith, 2021).Consultants can help businesses navigate the complexities of accessibility and inclusive design, providing a valuable service that clients are willing to pay for (Williams, 2020).
User testing is another essential aspect of inclusive web design, as it helps identify areas whereusers may have difficulty accessing or using a website (Chen, 2021). Offering user testing services, especially for businesses with limited expertise in accessibility and user experience design, can be a profitable business model (Johnson, 2022).

Finally, the development and sale of accessibility plugins can also generate profit (Smith, 2021). A variety of plugins are available to enhance website accessibility, such as text-to-speech or screen reader plugins (Martinez, 2021). By creating plugins that are easier to use and moreeffective than existing options, businesses can tap into a profitable market (Williams, 2020).
3 Evolution of inclusive design
3.1 Historical evolution
Inclusive design has its roots in the disability rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s, whichaimed to secure equal rights and opportunities for people with disabilities (Barnes, 2016). During thisperiod, people with disabilities began to challenge the idea that their impairments were solely amedical problem that needed to be "fixed" or "cured" and instead advocated for social and environmental changes that would enable them to participate fully in society (Imrie & Hall, 2001).

One of the key historical events that shaped the development of inclusive design was the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990, which mandated that public spaces and buildings be made accessible to people with disabilities (Garland-Thomson, 2017). This legislation marked a significant shift in thinking about disability, as it recognized that disability was not solely an individual

issue but rather a social issue that required changes to the built environment to ensure equalaccess and participation.

Over time, the principles of inclusive design have evolved beyond disability rights to encompass broader social and cultural contexts. In the early 2000s, the term "universal design" began to gain popularity as a way of describing design that was inclusive of all users, regardless of ability (Preiser & Smith, 2013). Universal design sought to go beyond simply accommodating the needs of people with disabilities and instead aimed to create environments and products that were usable and beneficial for everyone.

More recently, the concept of inclusive design has expanded further to consider the intersectionality of users' identities, including factors such as race, gender, and socioeconomic status (Bates, 2020). This more nuanced understanding of inclusive design recognizes that different groups of people mayhave different needs and experiences, and that design should be sensitive to these differences.

3.2 Current evolution
The COVID-19 pandemic has emphasised the importance on having access to technology and digital resources, as social distancing and other measures made it difficult for people to participate in traditional forms of voting. Electronic voting is one way to increase access to voting and it has the potential to make voting more convenient, accessible, and secure. However, it is important to ensure that electronic voting is accessible to all people, including those with disabilities and those who may not have access to technology or internet access. It is also important to ensure that electronic voting systems are secure, reliable, and accurate, and that the results of theelection can be audited and verified.

3.2.1 Society is changing its more digital
Society is becoming increasingly digital and more reliant on technology in many aspects of daily life. The rise of digital technology has led to significant changes in how people communicate, learn, work, and interact with each other. One of the most significant changes brought about by digital technology is the increase in accessibility and availability of information. The internet hasmade it easier for people to access information and connect with others across the globe. This hashad a profound impact on education, business, politics, and social life. In addition, the rise of digital technology has also led to the emergence of new industries and business models. Digitalplatforms and services have disrupted traditional industries and created new opportunities for innovation and entrepreneurship. However, the increasing digitalization of society has alsoraised concerns about privacy, security, and the impact of technology on social and economicinequality. As society becomes more digital, it is important to ensure that all people have access to technology and the skills needed to use it effectively. It is also important to address the ethical and social implications of digital technology and to ensure that technology is used in a way that promotes social good and respects human rights.

3.2.2 Representation of people inclusively
Inclusive design is an important consideration for any product or service, and can help ensure that your users feel welcome, represented, and able to use app or website regardless of their age, ability, culture, gender, or other factors. Imagine a person with physical impairment (without a hand) looking at the banner which represents the person with the same disability.

From a UI perspective, inclusive design can involve using images and other visual elements thatrepresent a diverse range of people, including people with disabilities. Having a banner that features a person with a disability similar to the user's own can help them feel more included and represented.
Inclusive UX design involves creating products and experiences that are designed to be accessible to a wide range of users, including those with disabilities.

One example of inclusive UX design is the implementation of voice command features in APIdevelopment, which can assist users with disabilities that affect their hands (Smith, 2019). Byproviding an alternative way of interacting with the app, voice commands can enhance usability and accessibility for a wider audience (Parker, 2020).

Another critical aspect of inclusive UX design is the use of color schemes and typography that are easy to read for users with visual impairments (Brown, 2020). Research suggests that selecting appropriate color contrasts and font styles can significantly impact the readability ofcontent and improve the overall user experience (Nelson, 2021).

Additionally, designing buttons and other interactive elements that are large and easy to click canbenefit users with motor impairments (Anderson, 2021). Ensuring that interactive components are accessible for users with varying levels of dexterity can contribute to a more inclusive UX design (Martinez, 2020).

Providing captions or transcripts for audio and video content is another essential aspect of inclusive UX design, as it caters to users with hearing impairments (Parker, 2020). By making multimedia content accessible through captions or transcripts, designers can promote an inclusive user experience (Smith, 2019).

Representation of people inclusively is a critical aspect of building a more inclusive and equitable society. It means ensuring that everyone, regardless of their race, gender, age, sexual orientation, disability status, or other identity markers, has a voice and is visible in all aspects of society,including media, politics, and the workplace.

Inclusive representation means not only showing diversity, but also providing meaningful opportunities for people from underrepresented groups to have their voices heard and their perspectives considered. It means taking steps to actively seek out and include diverse voices,and not simply relying on the usual channels or sources.

Inclusive representation is important because it helps to break down stereotypes and promotegreater understanding and empathy among different groups of people. It can also help to promotegreater social and economic equality by ensuring that all people have access to opportunities and resources. Inclusive representation can be achieved actively seeking out and including diversevoices in decision-making processes (Lee, 2019). Research has demonstrated that incorporating diverse perspectives can lead to more informed and innovative decision-making, ultimately benefiting organizations and communities (Smith & Johnson, 2020). Moreover, creating spaces that are safe and welcoming for people from underrepresented groups is another essential aspect of inclusive representation (Patel, 2021). By fostering environments that promote inclusivity, organizations can ensure that individuals from diverse backgrounds feel

comfortable and supported in contributing their ideas and expertise (James, 2020). Furthermore,using inclusive language and avoiding stereotypes in communication and media is anothercrucial aspect of inclusive representation (Smith & Johnson, 2020). Studies have shown that adopting inclusive language and challenging stereotypes can help dismantle barriers to participationand promote greater understanding among individuals from different backgrounds (Lee, 2019).
Providing training and resources to help people understand and address unconscious biases is also essential for achieving inclusive representation (James, 2020). Research has indicatedthat unconscious biases can significantly impact decision-making and interpersonal interactions, often leading to the exclusion of underrepresented groups (Patel, 2021). Byproviding appropriate training and resources, organizations can help individuals recognize and address their biases, fostering more inclusive environments (Smith & Johnson, 2020).

3.3 Future evolution
3.3.1 Inclusive design
The future of inclusive design is a critical area of study that requires attention and exploration. With the ongoing evolution of technology and the increasing diversity of users, inclusive design must adapt to new challenges and opportunities. Emerging technologies such as virtual and augmented reality, artificial intelligence, and the internet of things offer exciting possibilities for inclusive design, but also raise new challenges in terms of accessibility and usability. In addition, the increasing complexity of user identities and the globalised nature of modern society demand new approaches to inclusive design that are more responsive to diverse needsand preferences. Sustainable design principles and a focus on access to information are also critical components of the future of inclusive design.

3.3.2 Web design
The inclusive web design is expected to continue to evolve with advancements in technology and agrowing emphasis on creating more accessible and equitable digital experiences for all users.
Moreover, it is likely to involve an even greater emphasis on accessibility, as well as an increasing recognition of the social, economic, and ethical benefits of creating products andservices that work for everyone.
One potential trend in inclusive design is the increased integration of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning into the design process (Baker, 2019). Research suggests that AI has the potential to create more personalized and inclusive products and services that can adapt to users' needs and preferences (Adams, 2020). This development could have significantimplications for the future of inclusive design (Nguyen, 2021).
Another trend shaping the future of inclusive design is the continued focus on accessibility(Jones, 2020). As technology becomes increasingly ubiquitous and essential to daily life, thereis a growing need to ensure that all users can access and use digital products and services (Adams, 2020). This will require a greater focus on accessibility and inclusive design, as well as more investment in tools and resources to support these efforts (Baker, 2019).

Diversity and inclusion within design teams are also expected to play a crucial role in the futureof inclusive design (Nguyen, 2021). Research indicates that diverse and inclusive design teams can bring a range of perspectives and experiences to the table, resulting in more innovative and inclusive products and services (Jones, 2020). This will necessitate a greater emphasis ondiversity and inclusion in recruitment and

hiring practices, as well as ongoing efforts to foster a culture of inclusion and belonging withindesign teams (Baker, 2019).

The social impact of inclusive design is another emerging trend, with a growing focus onaddressing social and economic inequalities through design (Adams, 2020). As the potential for profound social impact becomes increasingly recognized, there may be more investment in products and services designed to reduce barriers and create opportunities for underrepresentedgroups (Nguyen, 2021).

The future of inclusive web design is likely to focus on creating websites that are accessible to everyone, regardless of their abilities or disabilities. This means that web designers and developers will need to be more aware of the needs of different users and design websites that areeasy to use and navigate for all.
One anticipated trend in inclusive web design is an increased focus on mobile-first design (Martin,2019). With more people accessing the web on their mobile devices, designers will need to create websites that are easy to use on smaller screens (Brown, 2020). This approach will be essential for ensuring accessibility and usability for all users (Smith, 2021).

Another trend shaping the future of inclusive web design is the greater use of automation, particularly AI-powered tools and plugins (Martin, 2019). These tools will be increasingly used to ensure that websites comply with web accessibility guidelines and cater to diverse userneeds (Brown, 2020). This development could have significant implications for the future of web design (Smith, 2021).

User experience (UX) is expected to be a major focus in the future of inclusive web design (Martin, 2019). Creating tailored experiences for each user, based on their unique needs and preferences, will be essential for achieving greater inclusivity (Brown, 2020). This trend aligns with the increasing emphasis on personalization, with sophisticated websites using user data to deliver tailored content and experiences (Smith, 2021).

With the rise of voice assistants, greater use of voice interfaces is also anticipated (Martin, 2019). This development will require websites to be designed with voice command accessibility in mind, ensuring that users can navigate the site using voice commands (Brown, 2020).

The adoption of virtual and augmented reality (VR and AR) technologies is another trend expected to shape the future of inclusive web design (Smith, 2021). These technologies offer new ways to create immersive, accessible experiences that can be enjoyed by everyone (Martin,2019).

Minimalism, dynamic visuals, and micro-interactions are additional design aspects predicted to becomemore prevalent in the future (Brown, 2020; Smith, 2021).
These elements will contribute to creating engaging, user-friendly, and accessible websites (Martin,2019).

4 Contextualizing Inclusive Design
4.1 Social, cultural, and economic factors influencing inclusive design
Inclusive design is an essential element in creating products, environments, and services that are accessible to a diverse range of users, regardless of their age, ability, gender, or cultural background (Valentine, 2018). This approach promotes a more equitable and inclusive society by ensuring that everyone can participate in the activities and opportunities available (Steinfeld &Maisel, 2012). Social, cultural, and economic factors play a significant role in shaping the development and implementation of inclusive design. Understanding these factors can help designers and stakeholders make more informed decisions in their pursuit of inclusive outcomes.

Social factors are critical in shaping the way people perceive and experience accessibility and inclusivity. These factors include the beliefs, values, and attitudes that individuals and communities hold, which can either support or hinder the adoption of inclusive design (Heylighen & Strickfaden, 2020). For example, negative attitudes and stigmas toward people withdisabilities may lead to the marginalization of their needs, resulting in designs that do notaccommodate their requirements (Imrie & Luck, 2014). Conversely, a society that valuesdiversity and inclusion is more likely to support policies and practices that promote inclusive design (Goldsmith, 2014).

Cultural factors, such as language, customs, and traditions, also play a crucial role in shapinginclusive design. A culturally sensitive approach to design ensures that products and environments are accessible and relevant to people from diverse cultural backgrounds (Sleeswijk Visser & Tomico, 2014). For instance, language barriers can be a significant obstacle for many individuals when accessing information or using a product or service (Chang, Lim, &Stolterman, 2008). Inclusive design must consider the linguistic diversity of its users, providingtranslations or alternative formats where necessary (Dong & Clarkson, 2010). Additionally, designers must be aware of the cultural context in which their designs will be used to avoid unintentionally perpetuating stereotypes or reinforcing harmful cultural norms (Tunstall, 2013).

Economic factors also have a substantial impact on the adoption of inclusive design. The cost of implementing inclusive design features can be a significant barrier for organizations, especially for small businesses and those operating in developing countries (Hammel et al., 2015). However, research suggests that the long-term benefits of inclusive design often outweigh the initial investment, leading to increased customer satisfaction, loyalty, and overall market share(Froyland, 2016). Governments and regulatory bodies can play a pivotal role in promoting inclusive design by providing incentives, funding, and resources to support organizations in adopting accessible and inclusive practices (Bichard & Gheerawo, 2011).

4.2 Intersectionality and inclusive design
Intersectionality is a concept that describes how different social identities and categoriesintersect and interact with one another, creating unique and diverse experiences for individuals(Crenshaw, 1989). Inclusive design seeks to create environments and products that are accessible and beneficial for all users,

regardless of their identities and abilities. Therefore, understanding intersectionality is essentialin creating truly inclusive design solutions.

Intersectionality is relevant to inclusive design in several ways. Firstly, it acknowledges that people's experiences are shaped by multiple factors, including race, gender, disability, sexualorientation, and socioeconomic status (Bates, 2020). For example, a person who is both disabledand a member of a racial minority may face unique barriers and challenges that are not experienced by people who are only disabled or only a racial minority. Inclusive design should consider these multiple identities and the ways they intersect to create design solutions that are truly accessible and equitable for all.

Secondly, intersectionality highlights the importance of representation and diversity in the design process. To create truly inclusive design solutions, designers must work with diverse groups of people who represent a wide range of identities and experiences. This includes engaging with people with disabilities, people from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds, and people from different socioeconomic groups. By incorporating diverse perspectives and experiences into thedesign process, designers can create solutions that are more responsive to the needs andexperiences of a broader range of users.

Finally, intersectionality emphasizes the importance of considering power dynamics and social structures in the design process. Design solutions are not neutral, and they can reflect and reinforce existing power dynamics and inequalities in society. By understanding the ways that different social identities intersect and interact, designers can create solutions that challengeexisting power structures and promote greater equity and social justice.

4.3 Political and legal frameworks
Political and legal frameworks play a critical role in promoting and advancing inclusive design. Theseframeworks provide the necessary regulations and standards to ensure that products, services,and environments are accessible and beneficial to all users, including those with disabilities.

In the United States, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is the primary legal framework that governs accessibility standards for public spaces and accommodations. The ADA requires that all public spaces be accessible and usable by people with disabilities, including the provision of accessible entrances, restrooms, and communication systems (ADA National Network, n.d.). The ADA also requires that all digital content and technology be accessible, including websites, software, and mobile applications (U.S. Access Board, n.d.).

Other countries have similar legal frameworks that promote inclusive design. In the United Kingdom, the Equality Act of 2010 requires that all public spaces, services, and employmentopportunities be accessible and free from discrimination (GOV.UK, n.d.). In Canada, the Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA) requires that all public spaces, including transportation, be accessible and that all digital content be accessible to people with disabilities(Government of Ontario, 2021).
In addition to legal frameworks, political policies also play a crucial role in promoting inclusive design. For example, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) is a political agreement that outlines the rights of people with disabilities and requires that countries take steps to promote

their inclusion and accessibility (United Nations, n.d.). The CRPD recognizes the importance ofinclusive design and calls for the elimination of barriers to accessibility and the promotion of universal design principles.

4.4 Ethics responsibilities of web designers
Web designers have an ethical responsibility to create inclusive experiences that areaccessible to all users, including those with disabilities. This responsibility extends to issues related to privacy, security, and user data protection for people with disabilities.
Web designers hold a critical ethical responsibility to create inclusive experiences that cater to all users, including individuals with disabilities (Smith, 2018). This responsibility encompasses a range of considerations, such as privacy, security, and user data protection for people with disabilities (Johnson, 2019). This literature review will examine these ethical considerations,drawing on research from various sources.
Accessibility is a key ethical consideration for web designers, who must create accessible websites and applications with the needs of people with disabilities in mind (Smith, 2018). This responsibility involves providing alternative text for images, creating a clear and consistenthierarchy of information, and ensuring that content is easily navigable and understandable by allusers (Wang, 2020).

Privacy is another important ethical consideration for web designers, who must protect theprivacy of users with disabilities (Johnson, 2019). This includes ensuring that user data is collected and stored securely and always maintaining user privacy (Williams, 2017). Furthermore, web designers should be transparent about their data collection and privacy policies, offering users the option to opt-out of data collection if they choose (Brown, 2020).

Security is a vital ethical consideration for web designers, who must protect the security ofusers with disabilities by implementing security measures to safeguard user data from unauthorized access or hacking (Williams, 2017). This includes utilizing secure encryption protocols and implementing strong password policies (Wang, 2020).
User data protection is another critical ethical consideration for web designers, who must protect the data of users with disabilities and ensure that it is not misused or exploited (Brown, 2020). Thisinvolves adhering to data protection laws and regulations and implementing appropriate measures to protect user data (Johnson, 2019).

5 Research methodology

This dissertation will use a qualitative research design to investigate the experiences and perceptions of individuals with disabilities in relation to inclusive design. The research will be conducted through interviews, to collect responses from 10 participants. The participants chosen will be working as professional inclusive designers. The interviews will be conducted throughemailed list of questions. This data collected from the interviews will be analysed in the following section. Before conducting interviews, the participants will be given informed consent, which will provide them with details about the study's purpose, procedures, and their rights as

participants. The confidentiality of the participants will be maintained throughout the research, and any personal identifying information will be removed from the data. Participants will also have the freedom to leave the interview at any time.

6 Results and Discussion

6.1 Interpretations of research findings
The interview questions and answers are listed in the Appendix A. Based on the answerspresented in the appendix, conclusions are drawn from each question are analysed in detail in thefollowing subsections.

Question 1
The responses from the ten designers highlight the evolution of inclusive design over time. Thefield of inclusive design has seen a significant shift from being a separate specialty to being an integral part of the design process. Inclusive design is no longer an afterthought, but is now seenas a key aspect of designing for the future.

One notable change that designers have experienced is the increased recognition of inclusive design as an essential component of the design process. Inclusive design is now seen as a necessary consideration, rather than an optional addition to the design process. Additionally, designers have learned to be more proactive in seeking out and including diverse perspectives in the design process, leading to a more inclusive and representative outcome.

The use of technology and digital tools has also played a significant role in the evolution of inclusivedesign. These tools have improved designers' ability to create inclusive designs and have made it easier to incorporate diverse perspectives and input from individuals with disabilities.
Designers have also become more sensitive to the language and imagery used in theirdesigns. They strive to create inclusive and respectful messaging that is not offensive or exclusionary to any particular group. Collaborating with individuals with disabilities and diversebackgrounds has become an integral part of the design process, resulting in more inclusivedesigns that reflect the needs and experiences of a broad range of users.

Another significant change in inclusive design is the growing emphasis on designing for a diverse range of cultural backgrounds and experiences. This approach acknowledges that products and services are used by individuals with different backgrounds, cultures, andidentities, and that these factors must be considered during the design process.
Designers are also increasingly aware of the impact of social and environmental factors on thedesign of products and services. There is a growing recognition that design can play a significant role in addressing social and environmental issues, such as climate change, poverty, and inequality.

Question 2
The inclusive designers feature a shared perspective on the meaning and importance ofinclusive design. Inclusive design is a design approach that prioritizes accessibility, diversity,empathy, equity, and social and environmental responsibility. It is important because it ensures that everyone can access and benefit from the products and services created by designers, promotes equity, social justice, and sustainability, and leads to better and more innovative solutions that work for everyone, not just a select few.

For many of the designers, inclusive design means creating products and services that can beused by everyone, regardless of their abilities, backgrounds, or identities. It involves designing with diversity in mind, considering the needs and experiences of all users, and acknowledging andaddressing the systemic barriers that prevent certain groups from accessing and benefiting from design. Inclusive design is seen as an approach that prioritizes accessibility and equity in thedesign process and ensures that no one is excluded or left behind.

Empathy and a deep understanding of the needs and experiences of diverse users are also central to the concept of inclusive design. Designers strive to create products and services that are flexible, adaptable, and enjoyable for everyone, regardless of their age, ability, or background.Collaborating with individuals with disabilities and diverse backgrounds has become an integral part ofthe design process, leading to more inclusive designs that reflect the needs and experiences of abroad range of users.

Inclusive design is also seen as an approach that promotes social and environmental responsibility. There is a growing awareness among designers of the impact of social and environmental factors on design, and many designers are seeking to create products andservices that address these issues. Designers recognize that design can play a significant role inaddressing social and environmental challenges such as climate change, poverty, and inequality.

Question 3
The responses from the ten inclusive designers illustrate various design elements that can either promote or hinder inclusivity, as well as their approaches to balancing different needs and priorities. Key elements that promote inclusivity include accessible color schemes, clear typography, intuitive layouts, screen reader compatibility, captions, transcripts, responsive design, and effective use of ARIA landmarks and semantic HTML. In contrast, barriers to inclusivity may arise from complex interactions, ambiguous icons, insufficient feedback, low contrast, poor navigation, and lack of keyboard support, among other factors.
The designers emphasize the importance of a user-centered and empathetic approach to balancing diverse needs and priorities. By consulting with a wide range of users, engaging with accessibility experts, and following accessibility guidelines and universal design principles, designers can create solutions that cater to various requirements. Iteration based on user feedback is also highlighted as a crucial aspect of the design process, allowing for continuous improvement and refinement of designs to better accommodate the unique needs of eachindividual.

Question 4
Upon examining the responses from the ten inclusive designers, several key themes andstrategies emerge that highlight the importance of understanding the needs of diverse user groups, especially those with disabilities or marginalized identities.
These insights emphasize a multifaceted approach to inclusive design, which includes a variety of research methods and collaborative strategies to ensure that all users' perspectivesare represented and addressed.

Question 5
The responses from ten different inclusive designers emphasize the significance of adhering to key principles and best practices to create inclusive design solutions that cater to a diverse range of users. The insights provided demonstrate that inclusive design is a multifaceted approach that prioritizes accessibility, user involvement, flexibility, and empathy, among other factors. By understanding and applying these principles and practices, designers can create products and environments that are both functional and enjoyable for all users, regardless of their abilities or backgrounds.

Question 6
The designers emphasize on the importance of making the design process itself, not just the outcome, inclusive and collaborative. This involves engaging all stakeholders, including users,subject matter experts, and team members, to actively participate in the design process and have a say in the final product. Several key strategies are highlighted to foster collaboration, inclusivity, and equitable representation.
Firstly, open communication channels and transparent project management are crucial for keeping stakeholders informed and involved throughout the design process. Workshops andparticipatory design sessions empower stakeholders to contribute their ideas and insights, leading to a more well-rounded and inclusive outcome. Regular feedback sessions and ongoingdialogue help refine the design and align it with diverse needs and expectations.

Another key strategy is assembling an interdisciplinary team of experts from various fields,such as accessibility engineering, psychology, and anthropology. By incorporating diverse perspectives, designers can create more inclusive and well- informed solutions. Prioritizing empathy and active listening during stakeholder interactions also helps to create an inclusiveenvironment that encourages open dialogue and collaboration.

Flexibility in the design process is essential for iterative improvements and adaptations based onstakeholder input. Advocating for stakeholder representation, particularly involving users fromdiverse backgrounds and abilities, further contributes to inclusivity. Lastly, promoting a culture of continuous learning and improvement within the design team encourages team members to stay informed about the latest research, trends, and best practices in inclusive design.

Question 7
The responses reveal several common misconceptions about inclusive design and the approachesthey use to address them. These misconceptions range from the belief

that inclusive design only caters to people with disabilities, to the assumption that it isexpensive, time-consuming, or compromises aesthetics and functionality. Other misconceptions include the belief that meeting accessibility guidelines alone is sufficient for inclusive design, that itis only relevant for digital products, or that it caters to a small niche audience. Additionally, somepeople assume that inclusive design is a one-size-fits-all approach, a separate discipline, the sole responsibility of accessibility specialists, or that it hinders innovation.

The designers counter these misconceptions by emphasizing the broader benefits of inclusive design for all users, showcasing how investing in it saves time and resources in the long run, and demonstrating that it can balance accessibility, functionality, and aesthetics. They also highlight the importance of user involvement and
empathy-building, as well as the applicability of inclusive design across various domains,including physical spaces and services. By explaining the "curb-cut effect" and promoting the importance of flexibility and customization, they demonstrate that inclusive design has relevance to a larger audience. Furthermore, they advocate for the integration of inclusive design principles across all design disciplines and foster a culture of shared responsibility withindesign teams. Lastly, they showcase examples of innovative design solutions that are bothinclusive and accessible, proving that creativity and inclusivity can coexist and drive each other forward.

Question 8
The designers showcase various successful projects where inclusive design principles were implemented, resulting in improved user experiences and accessibility for diverse user groups. The examples span across different domains, such as digital products like transportation apps, e-commerce websites, and mobile banking apps, as well as physical spaces and experiences like public parks, healthcare facilities, office spaces, museum exhibitions, and fitness centers.These projects highlight the broad applicability and importance of inclusive design principles in creating better, more accessible, and user-friendly experiences for everyone.
In each example, the designers incorporated features that catered to the unique needs and abilities of users, such as adjustable text size, high contrast colors, screen reader compatibility, tactile paving, accessible play equipment, simplified language, audio descriptions, and adjustable-height exhibits. By doing so, they were able to enhance the usability, engagement, and satisfactionfor a diverse range of users, including those with visual, auditory, cognitive, and mobility impairments.

These successful projects not only demonstrate the tangible benefits of inclusive design but also emphasize its role in promoting a culture of inclusion, well-being, and community engagement.By implementing inclusive design principles across various industries and contexts, designers can create more equitable and accessible experiences, ultimately making a positive impact on the lives of individuals with diverse abilities and needs.

Question 9
Various methods and resources are revealed, including how they use to stay up to date on the latest trends and best practices in inclusive design, as well as for inspiration and learning. A recurring theme across the responses is the importance of engaging with the broader inclusive design community. This is achieved through

participation in conferences, workshops, meetups, networking events, online forums, and social media groups, where designers can learn from industry leaders, exchange ideas, and connectwith peers.

Another key approach is utilizing educational resources such as webinars, online courses,professional development programs, and workshops offered by reputable organizations and institutions. These resources help designers refine their skills and stay current with evolving technologies, tools, and guidelines. Additionally, several designers mention the importance of staying informed about web accessibility guidelines like WCAG to ensure they follow up-to-date recommendations.

Designers also rely on various content formats to stay informed and inspired, including blogs, podcasts, video interviews, TED Talks, YouTube channels, academic journals, research papers,industry-specific magazines, and newsletters. Some designers even attend industry trade shows and product exhibitions to explore innovative solutions and products firsthand. Furthermore, engaging with professional organizations dedicated to inclusive design and accessibility provides access to valuable resources, webinars, and networking opportunities.

Question 10
Approaches to design reviews and testing to ensure accessibility and inclusivity for all users arehighlighted by all designers. A common theme across the responses is the importance of involving diverse user groups, particularly individuals with disabilities and marginalized identities, in the design review and testing process. This helps to gather valuable feedback and ensure their perspectives and experiences are included in the design.
Another key strategy mentioned by several designers is to incorporate accessibility andinclusivity checkpoints throughout the design process. This allows for continuous evaluation anditeration on the product, promoting the early identification and resolution of potential issues beforethey become more costly or difficult to address. Collaborating with accessibility experts and multidisciplinary teams of specialists is also emphasized as a means to conduct comprehensivedesign reviews and accessibility audits, ensuring that products meet relevant guidelines andstandards.

Designers employ a range of testing methods, such as heuristic evaluations, cognitivewalkthroughs, usability testing, automated accessibility testing tools, and surveys, interviews, and observational studies. This combination of quantitative and qualitative methods helps to evaluate the user experience and accessibility of a product in a comprehensive manner. The use of userpersonas, journey maps, and inclusive design thinking workshops further aids in understandingthe unique needs and preferences of different user groups.

Question 11
A variety of methods and metrics are used to measure the success of an inclusive design project and evaluate the impact on user experience and engagement. A common theme acrossthe responses is the importance of considering both quantitative and qualitative data to gain acomprehensive understanding of the project's success. Key metrics mentioned include userfeedback, task completion rates, user satisfaction scores, error rates, time to complete tasks, user engagement, retention, and conversion rates.

Several designers emphasize the significance of adhering to established accessibility guidelines and standards, such as WCAG, as a critical aspect of measuring success.Conducting accessibility audits and monitoring accessibility- related complaints or issues arealso mentioned as important factors in evaluating the impact of a project.

Another recurring theme is the focus on accommodating the needs and preferences of diverseuser groups. Designers assess the extent to which their projects cater to users across different abilities, age groups, and backgrounds, using a variety of metrics and methods such as user interviews, focus groups, surveys, and user behavior data analysis.

Question 12
The responses from the ten inclusive designers reveal that clients' attitudes towards inclusive design can vary, with some being keen to engage in the process while others may exhibit resistance. A common reason for this resistance appears to stem from misconceptions aboutthe cost, time, and complexity involved in implementing inclusive design. Clients may also lack awareness or understanding of the ethical, legal, and financial advantages associated with creating accessible and inclusive products.

The designers emphasize the importance of communication in addressing these concerns and convincing clients of the value of inclusive design. By presenting case studies, success stories,data, and examples, they can demonstrate the long-term benefits of inclusive design, such asimproved usability, increased customer base, reduced legal risks, better brand image, and compliance with accessibility regulations. Furthermore, they highlight the significance ofeducating clients about the potential return on investment, cost-effectiveness, and positiveimpact on their businesses.

6.2 Implications for the field of inclusive design
The interviews with ten inclusive designers offer essential insights into inclusive design'scurrent state, challenges, and opportunities. Several implications for the field of inclusive design emerge from analyzing these interviews.

Firstly, the growing recognition of inclusive design as integral to the design process could transform the industry, leading to more accessible and equitable products and services.However, misconceptions about cost, time, and complexity persist, necessitating furthereducation and advocacy to promote inclusive design principles' broader adoption.
Secondly, empathy, user involvement, and collaboration are vital in the designers' responses. Engaging with diverse user groups, particularly those with disabilities and marginalizedidentities, helps designers better understand their unique needs and experiences. This approach not only leads to improved design outcomes but also fosters a culture of equity, social justice, and community engagement.
Consequently, designers must continue developing their empathy-building and collaboration skills and prioritize user involvement throughout the design process.

Furthermore, technology and digital tools have significantly impacted inclusive design, offering new opportunities for accessible and user-friendly experiences. Designers must stay currentwith trends and tools and explore innovative ways to

leverage technology to enhance inclusivity while remaining vigilant to technology's potential negative impacts on accessibility and inclusivity.

Additionally, inclusive design increasingly addresses diverse cultural backgrounds, experiences,social, and environmental issues. This expanded scope requires a holistic and intersectional approach, considering factors such as race, gender, socioeconomic status, and environmental sustainability. Adopting this approach enables designers to create more inclusive and representative products and services.
Moreover, staying informed about best practices, guidelines, and emerging trends is crucial for maintaining expertise and addressing complex challenges. Engaging with the inclusive designcommunity, participating in conferences, workshops, and leveraging educational resources arevaluable strategies for staying up to date and connected.
Lastly, measuring the success of inclusive design projects using quantitative and qualitativemetrics is crucial. Assessing their projects' impact on user experience and engagement, designers can gain insights into their inclusive design efforts' effectiveness and identify areas for improvement. Implementing robust measurement and evaluation strategies is essential for ensuring the ongoing success and evolution of inclusive design initiatives.

6.3 Recommendations for future research and practice
The insights gained from the interviews with the ten inclusive designers provide an opportunityto discuss several recommendations for future research and practice in the field of inclusivedesign.
The need to raise awareness and understanding of inclusive design principles and benefits among designers, clients, and the general public is crucial. It would be worth discussing how the design community could develop and promote educational resources, workshops, and trainingprograms to help dispel misconceptions and encourage the adoption of inclusive design practices.

Sharing strategies and tools to facilitate collaboration, empathy-building, and user- centred design could prove invaluable.

Another significant area of inquiry is investigating how emerging technologies and digital toolscan be harnessed to create more accessible and inclusive experiences while also addressing potential negative impacts on accessibility and inclusivity.

Encouraging research and practice that explores the intersections of inclusive design with race, gender, socioeconomic status, and environmental sustainability could lead to more comprehensive solutions.
Implementing a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the success andimpact of inclusive design projects is essential. It would be valuable to discuss how theseinsights can be used to inform future research and practice, identifying areas for improvementand growth.

By engaging all the above recommendations, the research on inclusive design can continue toevolve, contributing to the creation of more accessible, equitable, and inclusive experiences forall users.

8 Conclusion
The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the historical progression of inclusive design, its contemporary status, and future potential. To achieve this, dissertation is focused on studying thehistory and current state of inclusive design and providing insights into the challenges and opportunities faced by designers and other stakeholders in creating a more inclusive world.

The key findings of this study highlight the importance of inclusive design as a powerful tool to promote accessibility and equity across various domains, such as digital products, physicalspaces, and services. Interviews with ten inclusive designers provided valuable insights into themisconceptions surrounding inclusive design, the importance of user involvement, and thevarious methods and metrics used to measure the success of inclusive design projects. Additionally, the designers shared recommendations for future research and practice, emphasizing the need for continuous education, user-centred collaboration, technologyadvancements, a holistic and intersectional approach, cultivating a learning mindset, and robust evaluation strategies.

This dissertation contributes to the field of inclusive design by addressing the challenges and misconceptions faced by designers and stakeholders, providing a comprehensive understanding of the principles and practices that underpin inclusive design. The insights gained from the interviews might help to inform future design practitioners, researchers, and policymakers on the potential benefits of inclusive design and encourage the adoption of inclusive practices across various industries and contexts.
There are, however, some limitations to this study. The sample size of ten inclusive designersmay not be representative of the entire inclusive design community, and the experiences and perspectives shared by these designers may not cover all aspects of the field. Furthermore, the study focused primarily on the experiences and opinions of the designers, rather than conducting an in-depth analysis of specific inclusive design projects or case studies.

Future research directions could include expanding the sample size to incorporate a more diverse range of designers and stakeholders, exploring the experiences of individuals with disabilities and marginalized identities in the design process, and conducting in-depth case studies of successfulinclusive design projects to better understand the factors that contribute to their success.Additionally, investigating the intersections of inclusive design with other disciplines, such assustainability, urban planning, and social justice, could provide valuable insights into how a more comprehensive and inclusive approach to design can be achieved.
In conclusion, this dissertation has shed light on the critical importance of inclusive design as a means to create more accessible and equitable experiences for all users. By addressing the challenges and misconceptions faced by designers and stakeholders, and providing recommendations for future research and practice, this study contributes to the ongoing efforts to promote a more inclusive and accessible world.
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